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立式加工中心工艺守则

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立式加工中心工艺守则

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:pryicheng.com.cn 点击:


操作者必须熟悉立式加工中心操作使用手册和机床性能,并经过有关立式加工中心的理和实习培训,通过考试及格取得上岗证,才具备操作立式加工中心的资格。

一、开机(ji)前(qian)准备 :

1机床(chuang)在(zai)每次(ci)开机或机床(chuang)按急停(ting)复位后,首先回机床(chuang)参考零位(即(ji)回零),使机床(chuang)对(dui)其以后的操作(zuo)有一个(ge)基准位置。

2工(gong)(gong)件(jian)装(zhuang)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)前(qian)要先清洁好各表面(mian),不能粘有油污、铁(tie)(tie)屑和灰尘,并用锉刀(或油石)去掉工(gong)(gong)件(jian)表面(mian)的毛(mao)刺。装(zhuang)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)用的等高铁(tie)(tie)一(yi)(yi)定要经磨床(chuang)磨平各表面(mian),使其光滑、平整。码铁(tie)(tie)、螺母一(yi)(yi)定要坚(jian)固,能可靠地(di)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)紧(jin)工(gong)(gong)件(jian),对一(yi)(yi)些难装(zhuang)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)的小(xiao)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)可直(zhi)接夹(jia)(jia)(jia)紧(jin)在虎(hu)钳(qian)上。

3机(ji)床工作台应清洁干(gan)净,无铁屑、灰尘(chen)、油污。

4垫(dian)铁(tie)一般放在工件的四(si)角,对跨度过大(da)的工件须要在中(zhong)间(jian)加放等高垫(dian)铁(tie)。

5根据图(tu)纸的尺(chi)寸,使用拉尺(chi)检查(cha)工(gong)件的长宽高是否合格。

6装夹工(gong)件时(shi)根据编程(cheng)作业指导(dao)书的装夹摆放方(fang)式,要考虑避开加工(gong)的部位和在加工(gong)中刀头(tou)可能碰到夹具的情(qing)况。

7工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)摆放在(zai)(zai)垫铁(tie)上以(yi)后,就要(yao)根据(ju)图纸(zhi)要(yao)求对工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)基准(zhun)面(mian)进行拉表(biao)。工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)长(zhang)度(du)方向误差(cha)小于0.02mm,顶面(mian)X、Y方向水平误差(cha)小于0.05mm。对于已(yi)经六面(mian)都磨好(hao)的工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)要(yao)校检其垂直度(du)是否合(he)格。工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)拉表(biao)完毕(bi)后一定要(yao)拧紧螺母,以(yi)防止装(zhuang)夹不30. 牢固而使工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)在(zai)(zai)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)移位(wei)的现象(xiang)。

8再拉(la)表一(yi)次,确定夹(jia)紧(jin)好后误差不超差。

9工件碰数:对装夹(jia)好的工件可利用碰数头进行碰数定加工参考零(ling)位, 碰数头可用光电(dian)式和机械式两(liang)种(zhong),碰当选方法有分(fen)中碰数和单(dan)边碰数两(liang)种(zhong),

立式加工中心

1、立式加工中心分中碰数步骤如下:

碰(peng)数(shu)(shu)(shu)方法:光电式静止,机(ji)械(xie)式转(zhuan)速450~600rpm。分中(zhong)(zhong)碰(peng)数(shu)(shu)(shu)手动(dong)移动(dong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作台X轴(zhou)(zhou), 使(shi)碰(peng)数(shu)(shu)(shu)头(tou)(tou)(tou)碰(peng)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)一侧面(mian),当(dang)碰(peng)数(shu)(shu)(shu)头(tou)(tou)(tou)刚碰(peng)到工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)使(shi)红灯亮时(shi),就(jiu)(jiu)设(she)(she)定这(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)点(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)相对坐标(biao)(biao)45. 值(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)为(wei)零(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling);再手动(dong)移动(dong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作台X轴(zhou)(zhou)使(shi)碰(peng)数(shu)(shu)(shu)头(tou)(tou)(tou)碰(peng)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)另一侧面(mian),当(dang)碰(peng)数(shu)(shu)(shu)头(tou)(tou)(tou)刚碰(peng)上(shang)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)时(shi)记(ji)下(xia)这(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)时(shi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)相对坐标(biao)(biao)47. 。 根(gen)(gen)据(ju)其(qi)相对值(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)减(jian)去碰(peng)数(shu)(shu)(shu)头(tou)(tou)(tou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)直径(即工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)长(zhang)度(du)),检(jian)查工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)长(zhang)度(du)是(shi)否(fou)合符图纸要求。把(ba)这(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)个(ge)相对坐标(biao)(biao) 数(shu)(shu)(shu)除(chu)以(yi)2,所(suo)得数(shu)(shu)(shu)值(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)就(jiu)(jiu)是(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)X轴(zhou)(zhou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)中(zhong)(zhong)间数(shu)(shu)(shu)值(zhi)(zhi)(zhi),再移动(dong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作台到X轴(zhou)(zhou)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)中(zhong)(zhong)间数(shu)(shu)(shu)值(zhi)(zhi)(zhi),把(ba)这(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)点(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)X轴(zhou)(zhou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)相对坐标(biao)(biao)值(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)设(she)(she)定为(wei)零(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling),这(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)点(dian)就(jiu)(jiu)是(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)X轴(zhou)(zhou)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)零(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)位(wei)(wei)。认真(zhen)把(ba)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)X轴(zhou)(zhou)上(shang)零(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)位(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)械(xie)坐标(biao)(biao)值(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)记(ji)录(lu)在(zai)(zai)(zai)G54~G59的(de)(de)(de)(de)其(qi)中(zhong)(zhong)一个(ge)里,让机(ji)床(chuang)确定工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)X轴(zhou)(zhou)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)零(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)位(wei)(wei)。再一次(ci)认真(zhen)检(jian)查数(shu)(shu)(shu)据(ju)的(de)(de)(de)(de)正确性。工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)Y轴(zhou)(zhou)零(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)位(wei)(wei)设(she)(she)定的(de)(de)(de)(de)步(bu)骤同X轴(zhou)(zhou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)操(cao)作相同 。根(gen)(gen)据(ju)编(bian)(bian)程作业指导(dao)书准(zhun)备好所(suo)有刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具。根(gen)(gen)据(ju)编(bian)(bian)程作业指67. 导(dao)书的(de)(de)(de)(de)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具数(shu)(shu)(shu)据(ju),换上(shang)要进(jin)行加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具,让刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具去碰(peng)摆在(zai)(zai)(zai)基(ji)准(zhun)面(mian)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)高度(du)测量器(qi),当(dang)测量器(qi)红灯亮时(shi)把(ba)这(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)点(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)相对坐标(biao)(biao)值(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)设(she)(she)定为(wei)零(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)。移动(dong)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具到安全的(de)(de)(de)(de)地方,手动(dong)向下(xia)移动(dong)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具50mm,把(ba)这(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)点(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)相对坐标(biao)(biao)值(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)再设(she)(she)定为(wei)零(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling),这(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)点(dian)就(jiu)(jiu)是(shi)Z轴(zhou)(zhou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)零(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)位(wei)(wei)。把(ba)这(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)点(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)械(xie)坐标(biao)(biao)Z值(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)记(ji)录(lu)在(zai)(zai)(zai)G54~G59其(qi)中(zhong)(zhong)一个(ge)里。这(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)就(jiu)(jiu)完成了工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)X、Y、Z轴(zhou)(zhou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)零(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)位(wei)(wei)设(she)(she)定。再一次(ci)认真(zhen)检(jian)查数(shu)(shu)(shu)据(ju)的(de)(de)(de)(de)正确性。

2、单边碰数(shu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)也是按上(shang)面的(de)(de)(de)(de)方法碰工件(jian)X、Y轴的(de)(de)(de)(de)一边,把这点的(de)(de)(de)(de)X、Y轴的(de)(de)(de)(de)相对坐标值偏(pian)移碰数(shu)头的(de)(de)(de)(de)半径就是X、Y轴的(de)(de)(de)(de)零位,最后把一点X、Y轴的(de)(de)(de)(de)机械(xie)坐标记在G54~G的(de)(de)(de)(de)其中(zhong)一个里。再(zai)一次认(ren)真(zhen)检查(cha)数(shu)据的(de)(de)(de)(de)正(zheng)(zheng)确(que)性(xing)。检查(cha)零点的(de)(de)(de)(de)正(zheng)(zheng)确(que)性(xing),把X、Y轴移动到工件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)边悬,根据工件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)尺(chi)寸,目测其零点的(de)(de)(de)(de)正(zheng)(zheng)确(que)性(xing)。根据编程(cheng)(cheng)作业指导书的(de)(de)(de)(de)文(wen)件(jian)路(lu)径把程(cheng)(cheng)序(xu)文(wen)件(jian)拷贝(bei)到电脑上(shang)。

10在计(ji)算机中打开要传数(shu)的(de)加(jia)工程序(xu)进(jin)行检查,然(ran)后让计(ji)算机进(jin)入DNC状态,并输入正(zheng)确加(jia)工程序(xu)的(de)文(wen)件名 。

11在加工机(ji)床上按TAPE键(jian)和程序启动键(jian),这时机(ji)床控(kong)制器出现闪烁的LSK字样。

12在计算机(ji)上按回车键盘就可进行DNC传数(shu)加工。

二、加(jia)工(gong)参数的设定:

1在加(jia)工中主(zhu)轴(zhou)转速的设定:

N=1000×V/(3.14×D)

注:N------主轴(zhou)转速(su)(rpm/min)

V------切(qie)削速度(m/min)

D-----刀具直(zhi)径(mm)

2加(jia)工的(de)进给速度设定(ding):

F=N×M×Fn

注:F------进给速度(mm/min)

M------刀具刃数

Fn-----刀具的切削量(mm/转)

3每(mei)刃切削量(liang)设(she)定:

Fn=Z×Fz

注:Z------刀(dao)具的刃(ren)数

Fz-----刀(dao)具每刃(ren)的切削量(liang)(mm/转)

三、立式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心开机加(jia)工(gong):

1执(zhi)(zhi)行每一个(ge)程(cheng)(cheng)序的开(kai)始(shi)时(shi)必(bi)须(xu)认真检查其(qi)所(suo)用的刀(dao)具是否编程(cheng)(cheng)指导书(shu)上(shang)所(suo)指3. 定(ding)的刀(dao)具。开(kai)始(shi)加工时(shi)要把进给(ji)速度(du)(du)调到最小,单节执(zhi)(zhi)行,快速定(ding)位、落刀(dao)、进刀(dao)时(shi)须(xu)集中精神,手应放(fang)在停(ting)止(zhi)键上(shang)有问(wen)题立即停(ting)止(zhi),注意(yi)观察刀(dao)具运动(dong)方向以确保安全进刀(dao),然后慢(man)(man)慢(man)(man)加大进给(ji)速度(du)(du)到合适(shi),同时(shi)要对刀(dao)具和工件加冷(leng)却液或冷(leng)风。

2开粗加工时不得离控制(zhi)面板(ban)太远(yuan),有异常现象及时停机检(jian)查。开粗后再(zai)拉表一次,确定工件没(mei)有松(song)动。如有侧必须重新校正和碰数(shu)。

3在加(jia)工(gong)(gong)过(guo)程中(zhong)不断优(you)化加(jia)工(gong)(gong)参数(shu),达最佳(jia)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)效果。因本工(gong)(gong)序(xu)是关键(jian)工(gong)(gong)序(xu),因此(ci)工(gong)(gong)件加(jia)工(gong)(gong)完毕后,应(ying)测量其主要尺(chi)寸(cun)数(shu)值与图纸要求是否(fou)一致,如有问(wen)题立即通知当班组长或编程员检(jian)查、解决。经(jing)自(zi)检(jian)合(he)格后方可拆下,并必须送检(jian)验员专(zhuan)检(jian)。

4工件拆下后及(ji)时清(qing)洁(jie)机床工作(zuo)台。

四(si)、加工类型(xing):

1孔(kong)加工(gong):

2钻(zuan)加工:在加工中(zhong)心上钻(zuan)孔(kong)前一定要(yao)先用中(zhong)心钻(zuan)定位,再用比图纸尺寸(cun)小0.5~2mm的(de)钻(zuan)头钻(zuan)孔(kong),最后(hou)用合适的(de)钻(zuan)头精加工。

3铰(jiao)(jiao)孔加工(gong)(gong):对工(gong)(gong)件进行铰(jiao)(jiao)孔加工(gong)(gong)也是要先用(yong)(yong)中(zhong)心钻定(ding)位,再用(yong)(yong)比图(tu)纸尺寸小0.5~0.3mm的(de)钻头钻孔,最后再用(yong)(yong)铰(jiao)(jiao)刀铰(jiao)(jiao)孔, 铰(jiao)(jiao)孔加工(gong)(gong)时注意控制主轴转速在70~180rpm/min内(nei)。

4镗(tang)孔加(jia)工(gong):对工(gong)件进(jin)(jin)行(xing)镗(tang)孔加(jia)工(gong)要先用(yong)中心钻(zuan)定位,再(zai)用(yong)比(bi)图纸尺寸小1~2mm的(de)(de)(de)钻(zuan)头(tou)钻(zuan)孔,然后(hou)(hou)用(yong)粗镗(tang)刀(或铣(xian)刀)加(jia)工(gong)到只剩(sheng)下单边0.3mm左右(you)的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)工(gong)余(yu)量(liang),最后(hou)(hou)用(yong)预(yu)先调好尺寸的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)镗(tang)刀进(jin)(jin)行(xing)精(jing)镗(tang),最后(hou)(hou)一(yi)次精(jing)镗(tang)余(yu)量(liang)不(bu)能少于0.1mm。

五(wu)、直接(jie)数控(DNC)操作:

1在DNC数控加工(gong)前要先装夹好(hao)工(gong)件,定(ding)好(hao)零位(wei),设(she)定(ding)好(hao)参数。

六、工(gong)人自检内容、范围:

1加工(gong)(gong)者在加工(gong)(gong)前必须(xu)看清楚工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)卡内(nei)容(rong),清楚知(zhi)道工(gong)(gong)件要(yao)加工(gong)(gong)的部位、形状、图纸各尺(chi)寸并知(zhi)道其下工(gong)(gong)序(xu)加工(gong)(gong)内(nei)容(rong)。

2工(gong)件(jian)装(zhuang)夹前应先测量坯料尺寸是(shi)否(fou)符(fu)合图纸要求,工(gong)件(jian)装(zhuang)夹时必(bi)须认真检查其摆放是(shi)否(fou)与编程作业指导书一致(zhi)。

3在粗加(jia)(jia)工完(wan)成后应及(ji)时进行自检(jian),以(yi)便对有误差的数(shu)据及(ji)时进行调整。自检(jian)内容主要为(wei)加(jia)(jia)工部位(wei)(wei)(wei)的位(wei)(wei)(wei)置(zhi)尺寸。如:(1).工件是(shi)否(fou)有松(song)动;(2).工件是(shi)否(fou)正(zheng)确分中;(3).加(jia)(jia)工部位(wei)(wei)(wei)到基准边(基准点(dian))的尺寸是(shi)否(fou)符(fu)合图纸要求;(4).加(jia)(jia)工部位(wei)(wei)(wei)相互间的位(wei)(wei)(wei)置(zhi)尺寸。在检(jian)查完(wan)位(wei)(wei)(wei)置(zhi)尺寸后要对粗加(jia)(jia)工的形状尺进行测量(圆弧除外)。

4经过粗加(jia)(jia)工(gong)自检(jian)后才进行精(jing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)。精(jing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)后工(gong)人应对(dui)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)部(bu)位(wei)的(de)(de)形状尺(chi)(chi)寸进自检(jian):对(dui)垂(chui)直(zhi)面(mian)的(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)部(bu)位(wei)检(jian)测其基本长宽(kuan)尺(chi)(chi)寸;对(dui)斜面(mian)的(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)部(bu)位(wei)测量(liang)图纸上标出的(de)(de)基点尺(chi)(chi)寸。

5工人完成工件(jian)(jian)自检,确认(ren)与图纸及工艺要求相符合(he)后(hou)方(fang)能拆下工件(jian)(jian)送检验员进(jin)行专检。

六、立式加工中心出错的原因、特别注意、改正措施列表:

1没有检查工件(jian)的长(zhang)宽(kuan)高(gao)尺寸(cun) 上机前的准(zhun)备工作,必须(xu)认真(zhen)检查工件(jian)长(zhang)宽(kuan)高(gao)尺寸(cun)是否符(fu)合图纸(zhi) 利用拉尺、碰数等方法检查其正确性(xing)。

2工(gong)(gong)(gong)件的摆(bai)放(fang)方向 根(gen)据编(bian)程作(zuo)业指(zhi)导书要求,对照工(gong)(gong)(gong)件、图纸确定(ding)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件的摆(bai)放(fang)方向 认(ren)真检查工(gong)(gong)(gong)件的方向,然后(hou)按指(zhi)导书的摆(bai)放(fang)进(jin)行操作(zuo)。

3碰(peng)(peng)数(shu)(shu)偏移 碰(peng)(peng)数(shu)(shu)方法、碰(peng)(peng)数(shu)(shu)后检(jian)查、输入数(shu)(shu)据的检(jian)查、碰(peng)(peng)数(shu)(shu)后根据工件的长宽尺(chi)寸(cun),把主轴移动到工件的边  缘,检(jian)查碰(peng)(peng)数(shu)(shu)的正确性;输入数(shu)(shu)据后再检(jian)查其正确性。

4用错刀具 认真(zhen)检查所装的刀具是否与指导书的一致在执行程序的第一句时(shi),必须确认所用的刀具。

5开(kai)粗(cu)时刀具崩(beng)碎导致工(gong)件(jian)过切、刀具报废(fei) 开(kai)粗(cu)时不得(de)离(li)控制(zhi)面(mian)板太远 有(you)异常现象及时停机检(jian)查 开(kai)粗(cu)后(hou)工(gong)件(jian)移位(wei) 装夹时必须确保紧固 开(kai)粗(cu)后(hou)重新拉表、碰数。

6工件尺寸不到数 检查所使(shi)用的刀(dao)具;通(tong)知编程(cheng)(cheng)检查程(cheng)(cheng)序 对(dui)于重(zhong)要位置,确(que)保使(shi)用新刀(dao)具加工;修改或增(zeng)加程(cheng)(cheng)序。

7输错文(wen)(wen)件(jian)名(ming) 加工前必须认真(zhen)检(jian)查程(cheng)序所用(yong)的(de)刀具对(dui)应(ying)的(de)文(wen)(wen)件(jian)名(ming) 认真(zhen)检(jian)查输入的(de)文(wen)(wen)件(jian)名(ming)的(de)正确(que)性。


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