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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:pryicheng.com.cn 点击:


如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心十分重要。可以说,正确选型是用好卧式加工中心的基础,是使卧式加工中心发挥出最大效率和效益的关键。卧式加工中心一次性投资大、技术复杂,同时种类、规格繁多,其价格、功能和精度又是一个对立的统一体,用户在选购时往往有不少疑问。

卧式加工中心

1我(wo)应该使用卧式加工中心吗?——加工工件特征(zheng)

加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心类型(xing)的(de)(de)选(xuan)(xuan)定需(xu)要考虑(lv)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)对象(xiang)、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)范围和设备价(jia)格等因素,根据(ju)所(suo)选(xuan)(xuan)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)族 (组)进行。如(ru)果您的(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)具(ju)有以(yi)下特征(zheng),则应(ying)选(xuan)(xuan)择卧(wo)(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心:加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)两面(mian)以(yi)上的(de)(de)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)或加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)在(zai)(zai)四周(zhou)呈径向辐射状(zhuang)排(pai)列的(de)(de)孔(kong)系、面(mian),如(ru)箱体类、壳体类零(ling)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)等,应(ying)选(xuan)(xuan)择卧(wo)(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心;被加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)位置精度要求较高,宜(yi)选(xuan)(xuan)用高精密卧(wo)(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心;零(ling)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)在(zai)(zai)一次装(zhuang)夹中(zhong)(zhong)需(xu)要完(wan)成多面(mian)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)时,可选(xuan)(xuan)择立卧(wo)(wo)复(fu)合(he)式五面(mian)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心。当然,上述(shu)各点也不是绝对的(de)(de),一方面(mian)是由于加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心正(zheng)朝着复(fu)合(he)化方向发展,另一方面(mian)选(xuan)(xuan)型(xing)时要综合(he)考虑(lv)生产效率(lv)、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)要求和设备资金等因素,要以(yi)性(xing)价(jia)比来衡量选(xuan)(xuan)型(xing)方案的(de)(de)合(he)理性(xing)。

建议:采购用户需要根据加(jia)工(gong)对象、加(jia)工(gong)工(gong)艺、加(jia)工(gong)范围等特征来确定是否使用卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)以及使用什(shen)么样的(de)卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)。

2我需要选用什么规格的卧式加工中心?——主要规格的选定

(1)工作台尺寸

这是卧(wo)式加工中心的主参数,主要取决(jue)于典(dian)型(xing)零件的外(wai)廓尺寸、装(zhuang)夹(jia)方式等(deng)。应选择比典(dian)型(xing)零件外(wai)廓尺寸稍大一(yi)些(xie)的工作台,以便留(liu)出安装(zhuang)夹(jia)具所需的空间,保证零件在(zai)其上面能(neng)够(gou)顺利装(zhuang)夹(jia),此(ci)外(wai)还应考虑工作台的承载能(neng)力、T形槽数量和(he)尺寸等(deng),小尺寸的比较通(tong)用,比如站内的卧(wo)式加工中心MH-630A、MH-800A、MH-500A、LH-630B等(deng)。

建议:目(mu)前市(shi)场上的(de)卧式(shi)加工中心工作台尺寸多为1000以下的(de),能够满足大多数用户(hu)的(de)需求。

(2)坐标轴行(xing)程(cheng)

最基本的(de)(de)(de)坐(zuo)标(biao)(biao)轴是(shi)X、Y、Z三轴,其行(xing)程(cheng)和工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台尺寸有(you)相应(ying)(ying)的(de)(de)(de)比例(li)关系,工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)大小基本上确定了(le)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)空(kong)间的(de)(de)(de)大小。如个别零(ling)件的(de)(de)(de)尺寸大于卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)行(xing)程(cheng)时(shi),则必须要(yao)求零(ling)件的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)区域处于机床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)行(xing)程(cheng)范围之内,此外还要(yao)考虑(lv)零(ling)件是(shi)否与(yu)机床(chuang)交(jiao)换刀具的(de)(de)(de)空(kong)间干涉、与(yu)机床(chuang)防护罩等附(fu)件发生干涉等系列问题。而对需(xu)要(yao)多(duo)轴联(lian)动(dong)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin) (如增加(jia)(jia)回(hui)转坐(zuo)标(biao)(biao)A、B、C或附(fu)加(jia)(jia)坐(zuo)标(biao)(biao)U、V、W),如四(si)轴、五(wu)轴联(lian)动(dong)卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin),这就(jiu)需(xu)要(yao)特殊订货(huo),同时(shi)必须对相应(ying)(ying)配(pei)套(tao)的(de)(de)(de)编(bian)程(cheng)软件、测量手段以及机床(chuang)价格(ge)等有(you)全面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)考虑(lv)和安排(pai)。

建议:采(cai)购用户需要(yao)根据加(jia)工工件规格选择不(bu)同坐标轴(zhou)行程的卧式加(jia)工中心,多轴(zhou)联动需要(yao)特(te)殊定制。

(3)主(zhu)轴电动(dong)机功(gong)率与转矩(ju)

它反(fan)映了(le)卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)的(de)(de)切削(xue)效率(lv)(lv),也从一个侧面(mian)反(fan)映了(le)卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)的(de)(de)切削(xue)刚(gang)性和机(ji)床整体刚(gang)度(du)。主轴(zhou)电动机(ji)功率(lv)(lv)在同(tong)(tong)类规格(ge)(ge)的(de)(de)卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)上可(ke)以有各(ge)种不同(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)配(pei)置,同(tong)(tong)类规格(ge)(ge)的(de)(de)主轴(zhou)转速不同(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin),主轴(zhou)电动机(ji)功率(lv)(lv)可(ke)以相差很大。

建议:采购用户应根(gen)据(ju)自身典型零件毛坯余量(liang)大小、切削能(neng)力 (单位时间金属切削量(liang))、要求(qiu)达(da)到的(de)加工精度、实(shi)际能(neng)配置的(de)刀具等因素综合选择。

(4)主轴转(zhuan)速与进(jin)给(ji)速度

需要高(gao)速(su)(su)(su)(su)切(qie)削(xue)或(huo)超低(di)速(su)(su)(su)(su)切(qie)削(xue)时(shi),应关注主(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)的(de)转速(su)(su)(su)(su)范围(wei)。特别是高(gao)速(su)(su)(su)(su)切(qie)削(xue)时(shi),既(ji)要有高(gao)的(de)主(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)转速(su)(su)(su)(su),同时(shi)也要具备(bei)与主(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)转速(su)(su)(su)(su)相(xiang)匹配的(de)进给速(su)(su)(su)(su)度。目前(qian)卧式加工中心(xin)高(gao)速(su)(su)(su)(su)化趋势发展很快(kuai),主(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)从(cong)(cong)每分钟几(ji)千转到几(ji)万转,直线(xian)坐标快(kuai)速(su)(su)(su)(su)移动(dong)(dong)速(su)(su)(su)(su)度从(cong)(cong)10—20/min上(shang)升到80m/min以上(shang),当然其功能部件如(ru)电(dian)(dian)主(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)、直线(xian)电(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)、直线(xian)滚动(dong)(dong)导轨、主(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)轴(zhou)(zhou)承(cheng)等(deng)及相(xiang)配套的(de)光栅尺(chi)、刀具等(deng)附(fu)件价(jia)格也都相(xiang)应上(shang)升,甚至(zhi)很昂贵(gui)。

建议:采购用户必须根据(ju)自身(shen)的技术能(neng)(neng)力(li)和配套能(neng)(neng)力(li)合(he)理(li)作出卧式(shi)加工中心(xin)的合(he)理(li)选型。

(5)刀库(ku)容量

可以根据被加工(gong)零件的(de)工(gong)艺分析(xi)结果(guo)来(lai)确定所需数量(liang),通(tong)常以典型(xing)零件在一次装夹中所需刀具(ju)数量(liang)来(lai)确定刀库(ku)的(de)容(rong)量(liang),卧(wo)式加工(gong)中心以选用40把刀左右(you)的(de)刀库(ku)为宜。同(tong)时要(yao)关注最大刀具(ju)直径(jing)与长度以及(ji)最大刀具(ju)重(zhong)量(liang)等(deng)。用于(yu)FMC或FMS的(de)卧(wo)式加工(gong)中心,应选择大容(rong)量(liang)刀库(ku),甚至(zhi)配置(zhi)可交换刀库(ku)。

建议:普通卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工中心选(xuan)择40把刀左右的刀库即够用(yong),用(yong)于FMC或FMS的卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工中心应选(xuan)择大容(rong)量刀库。

3我需(xu)要选用什么(me)精(jing)(jing)度的卧(wo)式加工中(zhong)心?——精(jing)(jing)度的选定

加工中心的(de)(de)精(jing)度(du)等(deng)级主要根据典(dian)型零件关(guan)键部位(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)精(jing)度(du)来确定(ding)(ding)。其(qi)精(jing)度(du)主要包括(kuo)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)精(jing)度(du)、重复(fu)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)精(jing)度(du)和(he)铣圆精(jing)度(du),特别(bie)是(shi)重复(fu)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)精(jing)度(du),它(ta)反映(ying)了(le)坐标(biao)(biao)轴(zhou)的(de)(de)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)稳(wen)定(ding)(ding)性,是(shi)衡量(liang)该轴(zhou)是(shi)否(fou)稳(wen)定(ding)(ding)可靠工作的(de)(de)基本指标(biao)(biao)。特别(bie)值(zhi)(zhi)得注(zhu)意的(de)(de)是(shi),选型订货时(shi)必(bi)须全面分(fen)析(xi),不(bu)能简单地看产(chan)品(pin)样本所列(lie)的(de)(de)精(jing)度(du)数(shu)值(zhi)(zhi),因(yin)为标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)不(bu)同、规定(ding)(ding)数(shu)值(zhi)(zhi)不(bu)同、检测方(fang)法不(bu)同,数(shu)值(zhi)(zhi)的(de)(de)含义(yi)就不(bu)同。刊物、样本、合格证所列(lie)出的(de)(de)单位(wei)(wei)长度(du)上允许(xu)的(de)(de)正负值(zhi)(zhi)(一(yi)般为正负0.05)常(chang)常(chang)是(shi)不(bu)明确的(de)(de),订货时(shi)要特别(bie)注(zhu)意,一(yi)定(ding)(ding)要弄清(qing)是(shi)IOS(国(guo)际(ji)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)化组织标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))、VDI(德(de)国(guo)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))、JIS(日本标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))、NMTBA(美(mei)国(guo)机床(chuang)制造商协会标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))还是(shi)NAS(美(mei)国(guo)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))及GB(中国(guo)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun))等(deng),进(jin)而分(fen)析(xi)各(ge)种(zhong)不(bu)同标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)所规定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)检测计算(suan)方(fang)法和(he)检测环境条(tiao)件,才不(bu)会产(chan)生误解。

铣(xian)圆精度是(shi)综合评价卧式加工中心有关数(shu)控轴的伺服(fu)跟随运动(dong)特性和数(shu)控系统插补(bu)功能的主(zhu)要指标之(zhi)一(yi)。不论典型零件是(shi)否有此需(xu)要,为了(le)将来可能的需(xu)要及更好地控制(zhi)精度,必须重视(shi)这一(yi)指标。

要特别(bie)注意区别(bie)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)与(yu)机(ji)床精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)两个(ge)不同的(de)概念。将(jiang)生产(chan)(chan)厂家(jia)样本(ben)上(shang)或(huo)产(chan)(chan)品合格证上(shang)的(de)位(wei)置精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)当作卧式(shi)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心的(de)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)是(shi)错误(wu)(wu)(wu)的(de)。样本(ben)或(huo)合格证上(shang)标明的(de)位(wei)置精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)是(shi)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心本(ben)身(shen)的(de)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du),而加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)是(shi)包括卧式(shi)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心本(ben)身(shen)所允许(xu)误(wu)(wu)(wu)差在内的(de)整个(ge)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)系(xi)统各(ge)种因素所产(chan)(chan)生的(de)误(wu)(wu)(wu)差总和。整个(ge)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)系(xi)统误(wu)(wu)(wu)差产(chan)(chan)生的(de)原因是(shi)很复杂的(de),很难用线性关系(xi)定量表达。选型(xing)(xing)时,可参考工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序能力系(xi)数(shu)Cp的(de)评定方法来(lai)作为机(ji)床加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)的(de)选型(xing)(xing)依据。一般而言,Cp应大于(yu)1.33。

站内(nei)高(gao)精密的(de)几款(kuan)卧式(shi)加工中心:MH-630B、LH-300A、MH-500B、TH500动柱(zhu)式(shi)卧式(shi)加工中心性能都不错。

建议:采购(gou)用(yong)户在挑选不同(tong)精度(du)的卧式加工中心时(shi),需要考虑:不同(tong)标准(zhun)对应的单位长度(du)含义;重视铣(xian)圆精度(du)指标;区别(bie)加工精度(du)和机床精度(du)。

4我应(ying)该选择哪种(zhong)数控系统?——数控系统的选定

数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)分为(wei)基(ji)本功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)与选(xuan)择(ze)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng),可(ke)以从操作方(fang)式(shi)(shi)(shi)、用(yong)(yong)户功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)、控(kong)(kong)制方(fang)式(shi)(shi)(shi)、驱动形式(shi)(shi)(shi)、反(fan)馈形式(shi)(shi)(shi)、接口(kou)形式(shi)(shi)(shi)、检(jian)测(ce)与测(ce)量、报警与提(ti)(ti)示、故障诊断等(deng)方(fang)面(mian)综合衡量。基(ji)本功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)是必须提(ti)(ti)供(gong)的(de),而只(zhi)有当用(yong)(yong)户选(xuan)择(ze)了选(xuan)择(ze)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)后,厂家(jia)(jia)才(cai)会另行提(ti)(ti)供(gong)并另行加(jia)价(jia),且定价(jia)一(yi)(yi)般较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)。总体而言(yan),数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)一(yi)(yi)定要(yao)根据加(jia)工中心(xin)(xin)的(de)性(xing)(xing)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)需要(yao)来选(xuan)择(ze),订购时既要(yao)把需要(yao)的(de)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)订全,不能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)遗漏,同时避免(mian)使用(yong)(yong)率不高(gao)而造成浪费(fei),还(hai)需注意(yi)各(ge)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)之间的(de)关联性(xing)(xing)。另一(yi)(yi)方(fang)面(mian),在可(ke)供(gong)选(xuan)择(ze)的(de)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)中,如(ru)SIEMENS系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)、FANUC系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)、国产(chan)华(hua)中数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)等(deng),性(xing)(xing)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)高(gao)低差(cha)别很大,价(jia)格亦相差(cha)很大,进口(kou)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)或国产(chan)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)亦决(jue)定其(qi)价(jia)格的(de)高(gao)低。总体上(shang)来看,法(fa)兰(lan)克系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)性(xing)(xing)价(jia)比(bi)(bi)比(bi)(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao),国内卧式(shi)(shi)(shi)加(jia)工中心(xin)(xin)使用(yong)(yong)比(bi)(bi)例(li)比(bi)(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)。站内卧式(shi)(shi)(shi)加(jia)工中心(xin)(xin)使用(yong)(yong)法(fa)兰(lan)克数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)也比(bi)(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)多,比(bi)(bi)如(ru)MH-800B 、 LH-500B都(dou)是比(bi)(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)好(hao)的(de)选(xuan)择(ze)。多台卧式(shi)(shi)(shi)加(jia)工中心(xin)(xin)选(xuan)型(xing)时,应(ying)尽可(ke)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)选(xuan)用(yong)(yong)同一(yi)(yi)厂家(jia)(jia)的(de)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong),这(zhei)样操作、编程、维修(xiu)都(dou)比(bi)(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)方(fang)便。

建议:法兰克数控系统性价比比较高,多台卧式加工中心选型尽量选用同一厂家的数控系统。

5我(wo)需要(yao)选择几台卧式加工中心(xin)能达到的(de)我(wo)的(de)产量(liang)要(yao)求?——生产能力的(de)估算

选(xuan)型(xing)时,必须(xu)要考(kao)虑(lv)卧式(shi)(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)能(neng)达到的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)能(neng)力,即要求选(xuan)定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)卧式(shi)(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)在(zai)一(yi)(yi)年之内(nei)能(neng)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)几种(zhong)典型(xing)零(ling)件(jian)、加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)出多少数量的(de)(de)(de)零(ling)件(jian)。要得到这些数据(ju)必须(xu)对(dui)每一(yi)(yi)种(zhong)确(que)定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)典型(xing)零(ling)件(jian)进(jin)行加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时和生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)节拍(pai)的(de)(de)(de)估算。一(yi)(yi)般步骤为:首先,根据(ju)已选(xuan)定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)典型(xing)零(ling)件(jian)进(jin)行工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)分析,初步确(que)定(ding)一(yi)(yi)条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)路(lu)线,在(zai)这条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)路(lu)线中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)选(xuan)出准(zhun)备在(zai)卧式(shi)(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)上加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序;第二,根据(ju)现用的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)参(can)数,估算出每道在(zai)卧式(shi)(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)上加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序的(de)(de)(de)单(dan)个(ge)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序时间;第三(san),由每个(ge)单(dan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序时间计算出选(xuan)定(ding)零(ling)件(jian)在(zai)卧式(shi)(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)上加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序的(de)(de)(de)总时间,进(jin)而计算出年产(chan)量即生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)能(neng)力。如(ru)果估算结果达不到目(mu)标值,但相差(cha)不大(da),则可以(yi)通过修改(gai)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)参(can)数的(de)(de)(de)方法加(jia)(jia)(jia)以(yi)调整;如(ru)果相差(cha)很大(da),则应考(kao)虑(lv)增(zeng)加(jia)(jia)(jia)卧式(shi)(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)台(tai)数的(de)(de)(de)配置(zhi)。

建(jian)议(yi):采购用户需要(yao)根据工(gong)(gong)件加工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)时和生产节(jie)拍的估算,决定(ding)卧式(shi)加工(gong)(gong)中心配备台数(shu)。

6卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工中心有好多选(xuan)配的附件我应该如何(he)选(xuan)配?——其(qi)他功(gong)能部件及附件的选(xuan)定

(1)坐标轴数(shu)和联动(dong)轴数(shu)

坐(zuo)标轴(zhou)数(shu)(shu)和联(lian)动轴(zhou)数(shu)(shu)均应(ying)满(man)足典(dian)型零件加工要求。一般(ban)情况下,同厂家(jia)、同规格(ge)、同等(deng)精(jing)度的卧(wo)式加工中心,增(zeng)加一个标准坐(zuo)标轴(zhou),价格(ge)约增(zeng)加30%—50%。尽管增(zeng)加坐(zuo)标轴(zhou)数(shu)(shu)可以强化加工中心的功能,是机床上档次的标志之一,但最终(zhong)还(hai)是要在工艺要求和资(zi)金条件下平衡决(jue)定。

(2)工作台

卧(wo)式加工中心可(ke)配置用(yong)于分(fen)度的回转工作(zuo)(zuo)台和数控回转工作(zuo)(zuo)台,后者能够实现任意分(fen)度,作(zuo)(zuo)为B轴与其他(ta)轴联(lian)动控制。回转工作(zuo)(zuo)台配置与否以(yi)及如何(he)配置必(bi)须(xu)以(yi)实际需要(yao)来确定,以(yi)经(jing)济(ji)、实用(yong)为目的。

(3)自(zi)动换刀装置(zhi) (ATC)

ATC的选择主要考虑换刀(dao)时(shi)间与可靠(kao)性。过分强(qiang)调换刀(dao)时(shi)间会使(shi)加工中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)的价格大(da)幅(fu)度提高(gao)并使(shi)故(gu)(gu)(gu)障率(lv)上升(sheng)。据统计,加工中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)的故(gu)(gu)(gu)障中(zhong)(zhong)约(yue)有50%与ATC有关(guan),因此,在满足使(shi)用要求的前提下,尽量选用可靠(kao)性高(gao)的ATC,以降低故(gu)(gu)(gu)障率(lv)和整机成本

(4)必(bi)要(yao)的(de)附件、配套(tao)件

选(xuan)型(xing)时(shi),还应(ying)注意选(xuan)用一些配套件(jian)(jian)及(ji)附件(jian)(jian),尽(jin)量避(bi)免因缺少一个几万元就能购买的(de)附件(jian)(jian)而影(ying)响(xiang)卧(wo)式加工中(zhong)(zhong)心的(de)正常运(yun)行(xing)。慎重选(xuan)择刀(dao)柄和刀(dao)具(ju)也(ye)(ye)是(shi)保证卧(wo)式加工中(zhong)(zhong)心正常运(yun)行(xing)的(de)关键(jian),最(zui)佳的(de)选(xuan)择办法应(ying)是(shi)根据(ju)典型(xing)零件(jian)(jian)所(suo)需(xu)的(de)品种和数量来(lai)确定,并(bing)在使用中(zhong)(zhong)陆(lu)续添置(zhi)。在卧(wo)式加工中(zhong)(zhong)心的(de)构成中(zhong)(zhong),排屑装置(zhi)、防护装置(zhi)和对(dui)刀(dao)装置(zhi) (如(ru)刀(dao)具(ju)预调(diao)仪)等(deng)均是(shi)必需(xu)的(de),对(dui)一些尽(jin)管(guan)不是(shi)必需(xu)的(de)配套件(jian)(jian),但如(ru)果价格不高,对(dui)使用带来(lai)很多方便,也(ye)(ye)应(ying)尽(jin)量选(xuan)用,如(ru)附件(jian)(jian)铣头(tou)、储(chu)刀(dao)料架、运(yun)刀(dao)具(ju)车、装卸器(qi)等(deng)。

建(jian)议:配件越(yue)(yue)高(gao),能(neng)实(shi)现的功能(neng)越(yue)(yue)多,但价格也越(yue)(yue)贵,采购用户需(xu)要根据加工(gong)需(xu)求酌(zhuo)情(qing)选(xuan)配。

7卧式加工中心(xin)选型时还有什么(me)其他需(xu)(xu)要(yao)注意的?——需(xu)(xu)要(yao)注意的一些(xie)问题

(1)结构(gou)设计

加工中心(xin)对其(qi)床(chuang)身(shen)、立(li)柱(zhu)、工作(zuo)台、主轴以(yi)及刀库等功能部件的(de)结构设计有着(zhe)很高(gao)的(de)要(yao)求(qiu),以(yi)达到其(qi)高(gao)强度(du)、高(gao)刚度(du)、高(gao)抗(kang)振性和稳定性的(de)目的(de)。选(xuan)型时(shi),应特(te)别注意把其(qi)结构作(zuo)为一项(xiang)重要(yao)的(de)具体内容来进行(xing)要(yao)求(qiu)与考虑。

(2)功能与加(jia)工的适应(ying)性

虽然(ran)加工中心可以(yi)进行钻(zuan)、扩、铣、镗(tang)、铰(jiao)、攻(gong)螺纹乃至(zhi)车削 (如车铣复合加工中心)等多种加工,但是在具体选(xuan)择时(shi),还应根据具体需要(yao)来考(kao)虑机床的功能与加工是否相(xiang)适应等问题。要(yao)注意以(yi)下几(ji)点:

A、复杂曲(qu)线(xian)(xian)加工时,要(yao)考(kao)虑(lv)CNC是否有(you)所需(xu)要(yao)的曲(qu)线(xian)(xian)插补功能,或选择(ze)什么方(fang)式逼近加工曲(qu)线(xian)(xian)并(bing)保证所要(yao)求的表面粗糙度。三(san)维加工时,要(yao)考(kao)虑(lv)选择(ze)适(shi)合的刀具结(jie)构,还要(yao)考(kao)虑(lv)程序编(bian)制能力,如有(you)必要(yao)则(ze)必须配备自动(dong)编(bian)程装置或后置处(chu)理编(bian)程装置。

B、需(xu)要(yao)进行螺(luo)(luo)纹切(qie)削(xue) (非攻螺(luo)(luo)纹方式)时(shi)(shi)(shi),不仅(jin)要(yao)看是否有(you)螺(luo)(luo)纹切(qie)削(xue)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)、螺(luo)(luo)旋(xuan)线插补功(gong)(gong)能(neng)和(he)主轴转动与进给(ji)(ji)同步功(gong)(gong)能(neng),还要(yao)考虑机床是否有(you)径向进给(ji)(ji)装置(zhi)、是否有(you)主轴在旋(xuan)转方向上任(ren)意角(jiao)度位置(zhi)准确定位功(gong)(gong)能(neng)。否则,仅(jin)在数控系统中用(yong)了螺(luo)(luo)纹切(qie)削(xue)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)仍然无法进行螺(luo)(luo)纹切(qie)削(xue)C、采用(yong)金刚铰、浮动镗和(he)挤(ji)压加工等特种加工时(shi)(shi)(shi),既要(yao)考虑适(shi)宜的(de)自动换(huan)刀(dao)的(de)条(tiao)件,又要(yao)考虑选择(ze)合(he)适(shi)的(de)刀(dao)具结构(gou)和(he)切(qie)削(xue)用(yong)量,应(ying)尽可(ke)能(neng)在购买主机时(shi)(shi)(shi)一并购置(zhi)部(bu)分易损部(bu)件及其他(ta)附件等。

D、如果有应用DNC、FMS、CIMS等(deng)的规划,或要(yao)进行(xing)网络(luo)制造,则(ze)要(yao)注意通信功能,应选择具(ju)有RS—232、RS—485甚至(zhi)MAP网络(luo)通信、CAN总线等(deng)接口的系统。

(3)运转的可靠性(xing)

卧式加工中心运转的可靠性决定了其质量好坏。数控系统由于某一块插件板故障造成停机数月的现象屡见不鲜,一个传感器失效造成机床丧失部分功能的现象也多有发生。所以在选型过程中,应采取对老用户进行走访等方式,更多一些了解所选卧式加工中心的使用情况。

建议:采购用户在选型时,需要对卧式加工(gong)中(zhong)心整(zheng)体的结构设(she)计、可靠性(xing)以(yi)及价加工(gong)适应性(xing)有客观(guan)的认识。


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