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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:pryicheng.com.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁(heng)架机械手(shou)由(you)主(zhu)体、驱动(dong)(dong)系(xi)统和(he)控制系(xi)统三个基本部(bu)分(fen)组成。按机器(qi)人结构(gou)分(fen)类为直角坐(zuo)标型,机械手(shou)沿二维(wei)直角坐(zuo)标系(xi)移动(dong)(dong)。主(zhu)体部(bu)分(fen)通(tong)常(chang)采用龙门(men)式(shi)结构(gou),由(you)y向横(heng)梁(liang)与导轨(gui)、z向滑枕(zhen)、十字滑座(zuo)、立柱、过(guo)(guo)渡连接板和(he)基座(zuo)等部(bu)分(fen)组成,z向的(de)(de)直线运动(dong)(dong)皆为交流(liu)伺服电动(dong)(dong)机通(tong)过(guo)(guo)蜗轮(lun)减(jian)速器(qi)驱动(dong)(dong)齿(chi)轮(lun)与y向横(heng)梁(liang)、z向滑枕(zhen)上(shang)(shang)(shang)固(gu)定的(de)(de)齿(chi)条作滚动(dong)(dong),驱动(dong)(dong)移动(dong)(dong)部(bu)件沿导轨(gui)快速运动(dong)(dong)。移动(dong)(dong)部(bu)件为质(zhi)量(liang)较轻的(de)(de)十字滑座(zuo)和(he)z向滑枕(zhen),滑枕(zhen)采用由(you)铝合金拉(la)制的(de)(de)型材。横(heng)梁(liang)采用方钢型材,在横(heng)梁(liang)上(shang)(shang)(shang)安装(zhuang)有(you)导轨(gui)和(he)齿(chi)条,通(tong)过(guo)(guo)滚轮(lun)与导轨(gui)接触(chu),整(zheng)个机械手(shou)都悬(xuan)挂在其上(shang)(shang)(shang)。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由(you)于(yu)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)输送的(de)(de)速度(du)快,加(jia)(jia)速度(du)大,加(jia)(jia)减速时间(jian)短。当输送较重的(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian)时,惯量(liang)大,因(yin)此,伺(si)服驱(qu)动(dong)电(dian)机(ji)要有(you)足够的(de)(de)驱(qu)动(dong)和制动(dong)的(de)(de)能(neng)力,支撑(cheng)元件(jian)也(ye)要有(you)足够的(de)(de)刚度(du)及(ji)(ji)(ji)强度(du)。只有(you)这样,才能(neng)使伺(si)服电(dian)动(dong)机(ji)满足桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)输送的(de)(de)高响(xiang)应、高刚度(du)及(ji)(ji)(ji)高精(jing)度(du)要求。在选择合适(shi)伺(si)服电(dian)动(dong)机(ji)的(de)(de)情(qing)况下,根据物(wu)料运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)的(de)(de)距(ju)离和运(yun)(yun)(yun)行(xing)节拍(pai),计算(suan)出伺(si)服系(xi)统(tong)的(de)(de)位(wei)移(yi)和轨(gui)迹,对(dui)驱(qu)动(dong)器PID参数进(jin)行(xing)动(dong)态调整(zheng)。桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)根据接收到(dao)的(de)(de)位(wei)移(yi)、速度(du)指令,经变(bian)化、放(fang)大并调整(zheng)处(chu)理后,传递给运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)单元,通(tong)过(guo)(guo)光纤传感器对(dui)运(yun)(yun)(yun)行(xing)状态进(jin)行(xing)实时检(jian)测,在高速搬(ban)运(yun)(yun)(yun)过(guo)(guo)程(cheng)中,运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)部件(jian)在极短的(de)(de)时间(jian)内到(dao)达给定(ding)的(de)(de)速度(du),并能(neng)在高速行(xing)程(cheng)中瞬间(jian)准停,通(tong)过(guo)(guo)高分辩(bian)率绝对(dui)式(shi)编(bian)码器的(de)(de)插(cha)补(bu)运(yun)(yun)(yun)算(suan),控(kong)制机(ji)械误差(cha)和测量(liang)误差(cha)对(dui)运(yun)(yun)(yun)动(dong)精(jing)度(du)的(de)(de)影响(xiang)。由(you)于(yu)被输送的(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian)不(bu)同,质量(liang)也(ye)不(bu)同,因(yin)此,桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)有(you)多种规格和系(xi)列。在选择时,根据被输送工(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)质量(liang),加(jia)(jia)工(gong)的(de)(de)节拍(pai)来选取(qu)。但机(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)手(shou)(shou)(shou)臂,夹(jia)持方式(shi),则根据被输送工(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)形状、结构及(ji)(ji)(ji)机(ji)床夹(jia)具定(ding)夹(jia)方式(shi)来设计(见图2)。

机(ji)械(xie)手能(neng)够借助可(ke)编程序(xu)来(lai)处理和(he)执行(xing)任务。机(ji)械(xie)手主要由手图 1 臂、回转装置、运(yun)动部(bu)件(jian)(jian)(jian)及驱动部(bu)件(jian)(jian)(jian)组(zu)成。通过对工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)外形或工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)上(shang)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)支撑点定(ding)(ding)位(wei)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)。例(li)如,在汽车(che)发动机(ji)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)柔性(xing)自动线物流输送中,桁(heng)架机(ji)械(xie)手的(de)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)模(mo)块会(hui)根(gen)(gen)据缸(gang)体、缸(gang)盖(gai)、曲轴等工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)外形特点,选取不同的(de)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)和(he)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)方式。柔性(xing)机(ji)械(xie)手上(shang)采用气缸(gang)和(he)电(dian)机(ji)进(jin)行(xing)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)和(he)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)模(mo)块的(de)切(qie)换(huan)驱动,一套(tao)机(ji)械(xie)手可(ke)完成不同品(pin)种的(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)搬运(yun)工(gong)(gong)作。夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)模(mo)块可(ke)根(gen)(gen)据产品(pin)质量和(he)外形的(de)大小(xiao)采用系列化设计,机(ji)械(xie)手上(shang)的(de)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)模(mo)块安(an)装方式相同,针对不同系列的(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian),只(zhi)需(xu)切(qie)换(huan)相应的(de)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)模(mo)块即可(ke),满(man)足快(kuai)速切(qie)换(huan)的(de)需(xu)要。这样(yang),当加(jia)工(gong)(gong)不同品(pin)种的(de)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian),只(zhi)须变换(huan)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)模(mo)块就可(ke)实(shi)现,提(ti)高了桁(heng)架机(ji)械(xie)手的(de)柔性(xing)化。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自动(dong)线(xian)桁架机械手输送装置的发展及(ji)现状

自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展,经(jing)历了刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)和(he)(he)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)两个时代。就目(mu)前(qian)而言, 在国内二(er)者均(jun)有(you)之。刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)分为(wei)棘轮棘爪、摆杆、抬(tai)起步(bu)伐、机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道等形(xing)式。随着加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展,由其(qi)组(zu)成的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)逐步(bu)替代组(zu)合(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)组(zu)成的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),它(ta)以(yi)适应小(xiao)批量多品种(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)优点,得到(dao)市场的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)广泛认(ren)可(ke),并称其(qi)为(wei)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)。这种(zhong)以(yi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)组(zu)成的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),就其(qi)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)装置(zhi)或(huo)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)带依然为(wei)刚性(xing)(xing)(xing), 这类柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)可(ke)谓是(shi)(shi)(shi)准(zhun)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)。当(dang)今的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)又有(you)了飞跃,输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)形(xing)式以(yi)刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou))并存,或(huo)纯柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song),即(ji)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)系统(tong)(tong)全部(bu)由桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)组(zu)成,这是(shi)(shi)(shi)真(zhen)正的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),即(ji)主机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing),输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)系统(tong)(tong)也(ye)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)。如主机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)是(shi)(shi)(shi)高速加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)配(pei)以(yi)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song),又称之为(wei)敏(min)捷(jie)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),是(shi)(shi)(shi)敏(min)捷(jie)制(zhi)造(zao)系统(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重要组(zu)成部(bu)分。自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)采(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)后(hou),输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)距(ju)可(ke)根据机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)配(pei)置(zhi)随意(yi)改(gai)变,自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)与(yu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)之间的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安装位(wei)置(zhi)不再象刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)那样,按照输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)距(ju)或(huo)步(bu)距(ju)倍数的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)要求进(jin)行(xing)(xing)严格的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安装,且输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)速度也(ye)可(ke)根据生(sheng)产(chan)节拍及(ji)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)距(ju)离而改(gai)变。而真(zhen)正体(ti)现柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重要一面是(shi)(shi)(shi),当(dang)被加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)零件的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)产(chan)品改(gai)变后(hou),输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)部(bu)分不会不适应而全部(bu)更换,只要改(gai)变输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)程(cheng)序和(he)(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)局部(bu)结(jie)构即(ji)可(ke)。采(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)更先进(jin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)一面是(shi)(shi)(shi),机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)整体(ti)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)化、智能化的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)协调(diao)统(tong)(tong)一。因此,桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)才在当(dang)今柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上(shang)越来越多地(di)被采(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong),使整个生(sheng)产(chan)过(guo)程(cheng)通过(guo)信(xin)息(xi)(xi)流系统(tong)(tong)进(jin)行(xing)(xing)控制(zhi)。在加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)和(he)(he)运(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)过(guo)程(cheng)中(zhong),所需各(ge)(ge)种(zhong)信(xin)息(xi)(xi)收集、处理(li)、反馈,并通过(guo)电子计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)或(huo)其(qi)他控制(zhi)装置(zhi)(液压(ya)、气压(ya)装置(zhi)等),对机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)或(huo)运(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)设备实(shi)行(xing)(xing)分级控制(zhi)。信(xin)息(xi)(xi)流系统(tong)(tong)分为(wei)由中(zhong)央(yang)管(guan)理(li)计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、物流控制(zhi)计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、单元控制(zhi)计(ji)算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、各(ge)(ge)数控机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)以(yi)及(ji)信(xin)息(xi)(xi)传送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)网络组(zu)成。目(mu)前(qian),汽车制(zhi)造(zao)业中(zhong)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)发(fa)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)缸体(ti)、缸盖及(ji)曲(qu)轴等大(da)批量关键零件的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),大(da)都(dou)采(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)了桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(见图3)。

2. 国(guo)内外的差距(ju)

当下(xia),我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展(zhan)很(hen)快(kuai),技(ji)术水(shui)平有(you)了(le)很(hen)大(da)的(de)(de)(de)(de)提(ti)高(gao),与国(guo)(guo)(guo)外的(de)(de)(de)(de)差距变得越来(lai)越小,甚至有(you)些机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)与国(guo)(guo)(guo)外相(xiang)比已经没有(you)什么差距。特别是国(guo)(guo)(guo)家重(zhong)大(da)科技(ji)专项的(de)(de)(de)(de)开(kai)展(zhan),为我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)上(shang)档次上(shang)水(shui)平提(ti)高(gao)了(le)加(jia)(jia)速度(du),成绩显(xian)而(er)(er)易见(jian)。加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)这几年发(fa)展(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)特别快(kuai),但柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)技(ji)术水(shui)平和(he)档次,较(jiao)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外的(de)(de)(de)(de)差距还很(hen)明显(xian),国(guo)(guo)(guo)外采用(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)较(jiao)为普(pu)遍(bian),而(er)(er)国(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)却为数不(bu)多(duo),国(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)庞(pang)大(da)的(de)(de)(de)(de)汽(qi)车生产(chan)市场所(suo)采用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)带(dai)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),大(da)多(duo)从国(guo)(guo)(guo)外进口。如无(wu)锡柴油发(fa)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)厂的(de)(de)(de)(de)缸体(ti)缸盖(gai)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)由(you)(you)(you)德国(guo)(guo)(guo)GROB公司总承包,由(you)(you)(you)BZ800加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心、GROB专机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、清(qing)洗(xi)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、拧紧(jin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、试漏机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、压装机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)在(zai)线(xian)(xian)检(jian)具、辅(fu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)及珩磨(mo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组成。输(shu)(shu)送采用(yong)空中桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)和(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道自动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)输(shu)(shu)送。仅以汽(qi)车制造业而(er)(er)言,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)生产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)自动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),采用(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)(de)屈指可数。大(da)连机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集团(tuan)和(he)沈(shen)阳机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集团(tuan)等生产(chan)出了(le)该方面的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),并(bing)在(zai)生产(chan)实(shi)际中得到了(le)应用(yong)。图4是大(da)连机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集团(tuan)生产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)DKX017缸体(ti)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)自动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)。加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)两种缸体(ti),分别为四缸和(he)六缸,其输(shu)(shu)送采用(yong)空中桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)和(he)自动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)两端为机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道等形式。桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)两个,一个上(shang)料(liao),一个下(xia)料(liao)。它的(de)(de)(de)(de)成功(gong),标志着我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)由(you)(you)(you)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)开(kai)始向国(guo)(guo)(guo)际水(shui)准(zhun)迈(mai)进。

上述提及的只是数量上的比较,其实(shi)真正的原因还是国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)的技术水平与国(guo)(guo)(guo)外有着一定的差距(ju)。柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)加工自动(dong)(dong)线采用(yong)的桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou),也是从国(guo)(guo)(guo)外进(jin)口的桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)。那时,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内还没有专门生产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)的厂家。如今(jin),国(guo)(guo)(guo)内巨一等(deng)一些桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)生产(chan)(chan)厂家的涌出(chu),为国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)加工自动(dong)(dong)线带(dai)来(lai)了希(xi)望,进(jin)而(er)缩小了与国(guo)(guo)(guo)外在生产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)方面的差距(ju),国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)在柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)加工自动(dong)(dong)线的应(ying)用(yong)也越来(lai)越多,从而(er)打破国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)市场被外国(guo)(guo)(guo)人的垄断。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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关键词:桁架机器人,桁架机械手,工业多关节机械手

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